2021, Volume 3, Issue 4
Health monitoring of structures and people requires the integration of sensors and devices on various 3D curvilinear, hierarchically structured, and even dynamically changing surfaces. Therefore, it is highly desirable to explore conformal manufacturing techniques to fabricate and integrate soft deformable devices on complex 3D curvilinear surfaces. Although planar fabrication methods are not directly suitable to manufacture conformal devices on 3D curvilinear surfaces, they can be combined with stretchable structures and the use of transfer printing or assembly methods to enable the device integration on 3D surfaces. Combined with functional nanomaterials, various direct printing and writing methods have also been developed to fabricate conformal electronics on curved surfaces with intimate contact even over a large area. After a brief summary of the recent advancement of the recent conformal manufacturing techniques, we also discuss the challenges and potential opportunities for future development in this burgeoning field of conformal electronics on complex 3D surfaces.
Micro/nanostructured components play an important role in micro-optics and optical engineering, tribology and surface engineering, and biological and biomedical engineering, among other fields. Precision glass molding technology is the most efficient method of manufacturing micro/nanostructured glass components, the premise of which is meld manufacturing with complementary micro/nanostructures. Numerous mold manufacturing methods have been developed to fabricate extremely small and high-quality micro/nanostructures to satisfy the demands of functional micro/nanostructured glass components for various applications. Moreover, the service performance of the mold should also be carefully considered. This paper reviews a variety of technologies for manufacturing micro/nanostructured molds. The authors begin with an introduction of the extreme requirements of mold materials. The following section provides a detailed survey of the existing micro/nanostructured mold manufacturing techniques and their corresponding mold materials, including nonmechanical and mechanical methods. This paper concludes with a detailed discussion of the authors recent research on nickel-phosphorus (Ni-P) mold manufacturing and its service performance.