The recent discovery of atomically thin two-dimensional (2D) quantum materials including transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) has revealed a promising potential for advancing the future of optoelectronics, photonics, sensing, and energy applications. Direct growth, patterning, and integration of 2D materials on various substrates are essential steps toward enabling their potential for use in the next generation of devices. The conventional gas-phase growth techniques, however, are not compatible with direct patterning processes. In this work, a laser-based synthesis and processing method is reported that relies on self-limiting laser crystallization (SLLC) of the stoichiometric amorphous thin layer (~3-5 nm) of 2D materials. This technique mainly takes advantage of significant contrasts between the optical properties of the amorphous and crystalline MoS2 phases allowing the deliberate design of laser 2D material interactions for the self-limiting crystallization phenomena with increased quality and a broad processing window. This unique laser processing approach allows high-quality crystallization, direct writing, patterning, and the integration of various 2D materials into future functional devices.