Atomic and close-to-atomic scale manufacturing: perspectives and measures
- Publish Date: 2020-08-12
This article presents the three paradigms of manufacturing advancement: Manufacturing I, craft-based manufacturing by hand, as in the Stone, Bronze, and Iron Ages, in which manufacturing precision was at the millimeter scale; Manufacturing II, precision-controllable manufacturing using machinery whereby the scales of material removal, migration, and addition were reduced from millimeters to micrometers and even nanometers; and Manufacturing III, manufacturing objectives and processes are directly focused on atoms, spanning the macro through the micro- to the nanoscale, whereby manufacturing is based on removal, migration, and addition at the atomic scale, namely, atomic and close-to-atomic scale manufacturing (ACSM). A typical characteristic of ACSM is that energy directly impacts the atom to be removed, migrated, and added. ACSM, as the next generation of manufacturing technology, will be employed to build atomic-scale features for required functions and performance with the capacity of mass production. It will be the leading development trend in manufacturing technology and will play a significant role in the manufacture of high-end components and future products.